Livestock manure can not be used as organic fertilizer directly. It must be fermented by composting. After the material is fully aerobically fermented by the turning equipment, the compost can be safely used. Livestock manure is a good organic fertilizer. Unripe organic manure contains certain pathogens, viruses, parasite eggs, weed seeds and so on. These manure is easy to infect the soil and cause soil and water pollution. The decomposed organic fertilizer is a kind of complete fertilizer. It not only contains a lot of NPK elements and many trace elements, but also contains some microorganisms which can promote the growth of plants. It can effectively improve the soil and improve the quality of crops.
Compost fermentation technology
1Raw materials for compost fermentation
The main ingredients of compost are cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens and other livestock manure. The auxiliary materials are crop straw, weed, sawdust, mushroom residue, and so on. Adding appropriate amount of organic fertilizer starter can accelerate the decomposition of protein, cellulose and other substances in compost.
2Modulate the moisture of the compost
After the composting materials are mixed, the moisture is controlled at 60%-70%. If the compost is too dry, add appropriate amount of water, and if the moisture is too high, add a proper amount of dry material to control the moisture within a suitable range.
3Composting Fermentation mode
The organic fertilizer fermentation method can be chosen by stacking fermentation on flat ground and fermentation in fermentation tank. When stacking on flat ground, the height of fermentation reactor should not exceed 1.5 meters, the length of fermentation reactor in not limited, the compactness of the reactor should be moderate, and air ducts or small handfuls of corn straw should be inserted into the reactor to provide oxygen for the activities of microorganisms in the reactor. When fermenting in the fermentation tank, the organic fertilizer has higher fermentation efficiency and large output. Fermentation tank can ferment materials in batches to realize the continuous production of organic fertilizer.
Turning equipment for composting
During the fermentation of organic fertilizer, the temperature and humidity of the compost should be checked in time. When the compost temperature rises to 60 ℃, in order to prevent the carbonization of organic matter and supplement oxygen in the compost, it is necessary to immediately turn over the compost. The commonly used compost turner equipments are walking turner and trough turner.
The windrow compost turning machine is commonly used in composting of flat fermentation. The turning machine is flexible in operation and can realize the dump and crushing of materials. Tank turner is suitable for material turner in fermentation tank. Simple compost turning machine is used for the overturning treatment of general small and medium-sized sites. Double screws compost turning machine is suitable for large-scale composting fermentation. It overcomes the limitation of traditional turner on the site and has many fermentation materials and a large amount of overturning.
During fermentation, the water should be supplemented according to the situation. When the heap temperature rises to 50 ℃, the heap should be turned over once every 3 days. If the heap temperature exceeds 60 ℃, the heap should be turned over once every 2 days. When the organic matter is fully decomposed, the heap temperature gradually decreases and the heap temperature is stable at 40 ℃, the composting process is completed and the organic matter forms humus.
The fermented compost is black-brown with white hyphae in the compost. Decomposed organic fertilizer can be directly used or used as processing raw material for commercial organic fertilizer.