The manure of livestock and poultry is a very good raw material for the production of organic fertilizer, but these raw materials contain a large number of microorganisms and harmful bacteria, which can not be applied directly. It is necessary to carry out deep high temperature fermentation. There are two main purposes of fermentation, one is to kill harmful bacteria, the other is to organicize underdigested substances and increase the content of actual organic matter. This compost fermentation method includes aerobic fermentation and anaerobic fermentation, so what are the similarities and differences between the two fermentation forms of organic fertilizer manufacturing process?
Similarities and differences between aerobic fermentation and anaerobic fermentation
The same point: degrade organic pollutants, kill pathogens, increase the proportion of N and P, and make raw fertilizer become mature fertilizer that is more easily absorbed by plants.
Differences: aerobic fermentation time is short, natural ventilation or forced ventilation is required, turning is required, and energy consumption is relatively high; anaerobic composting time is long, odor is large, and energy consumption is low.
Organic fertilizer manufacturing process
Fermentation can be carried out in a pile or in a fermentation tank. When the livestock and poultry manure is piled up, an appropriate amount of fermentation strain is added, usually the fermentation time is 10-20 days. The manure after deep fermentation can be directly applied after being crushed and sieved after leaving the tank. But it is just called the traditional compost, and it needs further processing, using fertilizer granulator machine and other equipment to process, so that each nutrient content reaches the corresponding fertilizer product standard, this is the commercial organic fertilizer.
In the current organic fertilizer fermentation technology, aerobic fermentation is the most widely used. Different from anaerobic fermentation, aerobic fermentation requires the use of organic fertilizer dumper to dump materials on a regular basis in order to fully contact the materials with oxygen. According to the degree of temperature, the fermentation process of organic fertilizer can be divided into three stages: low temperature stage, high temperature stage and cooling stage (heat preservation stage).
1. Low temperature period. The temperature is about 20 ℃ - 35 ℃. At this time, mesophilic microorganisms propagated vigorously and began to decompose organic fertilizer raw materials. The heat generated in the decomposition process constantly increases the temperature of the raw material pile for organic fertilizer fermentation, making the fermentation process enter the next stage.
2. High temperature period. The temperature is around 40℃~70℃. At this time, the microbial flora is multiplying, and the decomposition and fermentation of organic fertilizer raw materials are greatly accelerated, and the compost windrow turner machine must be stirred by the windrow turning machine. In this stage, the egg germs in the raw materials are gradually killed. With the accumulation of heat, when the temperature exceeds 70℃, the low-temperature microbial bacteria will die, the activity of high-temperature bacteria will also decrease, and the fermentation rate will slow down. The organic fertilizer fermentation raw materials are usually turned over to prevent the fermentation speed from slowing down due to excessive temperature.
3. Cooling period (heat preservation stage). With the end of the fermentation process. The temperature of fermentation pile gradually decreased until it was slightly higher than the room temperature. Then it is sealed and saved.